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The total opposition (i.e., resistance or reactance) a circuit offers to the flow of alternating current. It is measured in ohms and the lower the ohmic value, the better the quality of the conductor.

A term used to describe the quality of the air breathed by occupants of an indoor or enclosed environment.

The actual cost for materials and labor that also includes floor preparation, shutdown or loss of use of space, removal of old flooring and any procedures such as initial required cleaning, vapor test or vapor barrier applications.

The property of “insulation” refers to a material’s ability to store as opposed to conduct. An insulator is the opposite of a conductor. A good example of an insulator is a stone hearth. Although the hearth stores heat from a hot fire, it can be touched without danger because the heat is retained by the hearth and not transferred to the skin (as opposed to touching the metal grille on the same fireplace). In the case of carpet construction, all fibers are insulators unless a conductive coating is applied to the external perimeter of the fibers. Insulated fibers will both generate and store static electricity. They cannot be grounded, even if a copper wire is attached to them.

A material having a surface resistivity of at least 1 x 1012 ohms/square or 1 x 1011 ohm- cm volume resistivity.

A material with high electrical resistance, (an insulator), will not conduct a charge to ground. Examples of insulators are plastic, rubber, vinyl, and wood. A practical example of an insulator is the rubber or vinyl casings around common electrical wires.

The change in dye uniformity across diameter and along the length of a yarn's individual filaments. Affects appearance of the dyed product and is a function of fiber, dye, dyeing process, and dye bath characteristics.

A standard comparison to rate degrees of color change from 5 (no change) to 1 (severe change).

A standard comparison to rate degrees of staining from 5 (no stain) to 1 (severe stain).

A non-governmental, worldwide organization whose work results in international agreements that are published as International Standards.